[Extra Quality] Crack The Given Dictionary Based Crypt Password
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One remarkable feature of John is that it can autodetect the encryption for common formats. This will save you a lot of time in researching the hash formats and finding the correct tool to crack them.
The final step would be to generate random passwords and use a password manager. There are a variety of options including the Chrome built-in Google password manager. If you use a strong password for each site you use, it becomes extremely hard to crack your password.
BitLocker is one of the most advanced and most commonly used volume encryption solutions. BitLocker is well-studied and extensively documented solution with few known vulnerabilities and a limited number of possible vectors of attack. BitLocker volumes may be protected with one or more protectors such as the hardware-bound TPM, user-selectable password, USB key, or combination thereof. Attacking the password is only possible in one of these cases, while other protectors require a very different set of attacks. Learn how to approach BitLocker volumes depending on the type of protector.
Does the VMK in this scheme looks redundant? It has its purpose. The use of intermediate key (VMK between FVEK and any key protectors) allows changing the keys without the need to re-encrypt the raw data in a case a given key protector is compromised or changed. When changing a key protector, a new VMK will be created and used to encrypt the old FVEK with the new VMK.
BitLocker volumes (or, rather, the volume master keys) can be protected with various methods called protectors. With some of these protectors, the protection is hardware bound. As a result, in order to unlock the volume and decrypt the data, you will need either the original piece of hardware (and possibly other credentials); the brute force attack will not be feasible. Let us check which key protectors exist, how they are used, and how to approach the attack of a BitLocker volume protected with a given protector type.
Attack vectors: There is still no password to attack (wait for the next option!), so you will require the USB key in order to decrypt the VMK. However, the VMK can be decrypted on any computer as this time the TPM is out of the question.
Attack vectors: We are finally there. Password only is the only BitLocker protector allowing for a brute force (or dictionary) attack. Similar to the previous case, the VMK can be decrypted on any computer as this time the TPM is out of the question.
The traditional acquisition approach requires disassembling the computer, removing and imaging all of its storage devices. However, all one really needs to start the attack on the password of an encrypted volume is a few kilobytes worth of encryption metadata. The metadata can be extracted significantly faster without removing the hard drives.
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Credentials are involved in most breaches today. Forrester Research has estimated that compromised privileged credentials are involved in about 80% of breaches. When a compromised account has privileges, the threat actor can easily circumvent other security controls, perform lateral movement, and crack other passwords. This is why highly privileged credentials are the most important of all credentials to protect.
In this section, we will look at common password cracking techniques. Some of these techniques may overlap in tools and methodologies. Attackers often blend multiple, complimentary tactics to improve their chances of success.
If the threat actor knows the password length and complexity requirements of the target account, the dictionary is customized to the target. Advanced password crackers often use a dictionary and mix in numbers and symbols to mimic a real-world password with complexity requirements.
A weakness of dictionary attacks is that they rely on real words and derivations supplied by the user of the default dictionary. If the real password is fictitious, uses multiple languages, or uses more than one word or phrase, it should thwart a dictionary attack.
If a password only has alphabetical characters, including capital letters or lowercase, odds are it would take 8,031,810,176 guesses to crack. This assumes the threat attacker knows the password length and complexity requirements. Other factors include numbers, case sensitivity, and special characters in the localized language.
Credential stuffing attacks do not attempt to brute force or guess any passwords. The threat actor automates authentication based on previously discovered credentials using customized tools. This approach can entail launching millions of attempts to determine where a user potentially reused their credentials on another website or application.
Password spraying is a credential-based attack that attempts to access many accounts by using a few common passwords. Conceptually, this is the opposite of a brute force password attack. Brute force attempts to gain authorized access to a single account by repeatedly pumping large quantities of password combinations.
Password eavesdropping refers to a password exposure occurring because of being overheard. Password eavesdropping may be either inadvertent or intentional and can encompass both voice-based and digital eavesdropping.
In the early days of computing, you needed to physically connect to the machine you were accessing. The systems you were authenticating to were also running locally. Now, we regularly authenticate into systems on the other side of the world, and increasingly, that are not even our systems. Our passwords are transmitted electronically through many systems to reach their destination, and absent proper encryption and other protections, may be vulnerable to eavesdropping.
Today, companies frequently engage white hat hackers and penetration testers to increase the resiliency of their security networks, including password cracking. Subsequently, the availability and development of cracking software has increased. Modern computer forensics and litigation support software also includes password cracking functionality. The most sophisticated cracking software will incorporate a mixture of cracking strategies to maximize productivity.
Some password cracking techniques rely on system vulnerabilities or gaining access to a privileged account to achieve lateral movement and amass other passwords. However, most cracking relies on inadequate password hygiene and absence of appropriate credential management tools.
3. Create Long, Random, Unique Passphrases: Strong passwords resist password cracking attempts. Passwords should be over eight characters in length and made up of both upper and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Avoid using dictionary words, names, and other human-readable passphrases. Length and strength should reflect the sensitivity of the account the password is meant to protect. According to NIST Special Publication 800-63, Digital Identity Guidelines, a best practice is to generate passwords of up to 64 characters, including spaces.
4. Encrypt passwords: Encryption adds a protection layer for passwords, even if they are stolen by cybercriminals. Apply end-to-end encryption that is non-reversible. In this way, you can protect passwords in transit over the network.
5. Use Unique Passwords Without Repeating: This simple best practice protects against a broad array of password re-use strategies and password cracking tools. Otherwise, if one account is breached, other accounts with the same credentials can easily be compromised.
7. Implement Multi-Factor Authentication: For sensitive accounts and vendor/remote access, single-factor authentication (password/username pair) is insufficient. Adding additional authentication factors greatly increases protection and increases assurance that the identity trying to initiate access is who they say they are. Multi-factor authentication (MFA), by incorporating factors such as endpoint or biometrics, protects accounts against password cracking tools and guessing attacks.
In this lab students will use a tool called "hashcat" to crack the passwords stored ina file. They were obtained from a Unix computer. Unix storeshashes of all its accounts' passwords in a single file. On older systems(pre-2000) the filewas /etc/passwd; on newer ones it is /etc/shadow instead (/etc/passwd remains,but no longer holds the password hashes).
Passwords themselves, in clear text, are never stored. But gaining their hashes is a matter of copying the containingfile. Given the file, an attacker can try at his leisure to figure out what theoriginal passwords were. That's what hashcat does. It has several techniques by which tocrack:
You will use some of these in this lab. There are hashcat versions for linux,Windows, and OSX. You will run it within Kali Linux, a linux distribution inwhich hashcat comes pre-installed, against passwords produced and taken from aFedora linux system. Our kali linux system is configured to use the md5 hashalgorithm for processing passwords. Current linux distributions normally use sha512by default. But ours has been set to md5 for 1) brevity, hence legibility, of output 2) speed of execution, considering the exercise is to be done in limitedtimesha512 is preferred outside the tutorial context. (Incidentally the file thatconfigures which hash algorithm is used for your system's passwords, on debian based systems like kalilinux,is /etc/pam.d/common-password.)
Passwords get hashed coming and going. When originally created, the stringsupplied by the user is hashed and stored. When later used for login authentication, the candidate password supplied by the person who wants to log in is whatgets hashed. That hash is compared for match against the stored one. But this isoversimplified a little. There aretwo wrinkles. First, a generated prefix called a salt is usually pasted in frontof theuser's password before hashing. Second, the processingalgorithm differs from pure hashing. Though intimately based on one of thewell-known hash algorithms, it does more to the password that just hash it. What ends up in /etc/shadow went through some additional steps. 2b1af7f3a8